Why Alzheimer’s Disease is Caused?

Alzheimer’s disease is caused by parts of the brain shrinking (atrophy), which affects the structure and function of particular brain areas. It’s not known exactly what causes this process to begin. However, in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease, scientists have found amyloid plaques (abnormal deposits of protein), neurofibrillary tangles (containing tau) and imbalances in a chemical called acetylcholine. It’s also common to have a degree of vascular damage in the brain. These reduce the effectiveness of healthy neurons. Over time, this damage spreads to several areas of the brain. The first areas affected are responsible for memories.

Increased risk
Although it’s still unknown what triggers Alzheimer’sdisease, several factors are known to increase your risk of developing the condition.

Age
Age is the single most significant factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. The likelihood of developing the condition doubles every five years after you reach 65 years of age. However, it’s not just older people who are at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Around 1 in 20 people with the condition are under 65. This is called early onset Alzheimer’s disease and it can affect people from around the age of 40.

Family history
The genes you inherit from your parents can contribute to your risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, although the actual increase in risk is small if you have a close family member with the condition.

Down’s syndrome
People with Down’s syndrome are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. This is because the genetic fault that causes Down’s syndrome can also cause amyloid plaques to build up in the brain over time, which can lead to Alzheimer’s disease in some people.

Head injuries
People who have had a severe head injury have been found to be at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Cardiovascular diseases
Research shows that several lifestyle factors and conditions associated with cardiovascular disease can increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

These include:

  • ·         smoking
  • ·         obesity
  • ·         diabetes
  • ·         high blood pressure
  • ·         high cholesterol

You can help reduce your risk by:

  • ·         stopping smoking
  • ·         eating a healthy, balanced diet
  • ·         leading an active life, both physically and mentally
  • ·         losing weight if you need to
  • ·         drinking less alcohol
  • ·         having regular health checks as you get older

To know more join us at the International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases at Madrid, Spain on 27-28 August, 2018.

blog 25 April

Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease (cont)

These are the last three stages in Alzheimer’s Disease

Stage 5: Moderately Severe Decline

During the fifth stage of Alzheimer’s, patients begin to need help with many day to day activities. People in stage five of the disease may experience:

  • Significant confusion
  • Inability to recall simple details about themselves such as their own phone number
  • Difficulty dressing appropriately

On the other hand, patients in stage five maintain a modicum of functionality. They typically can still bathe and toilet independently. They also usually still know their family members and some detail about their personal histories, especially their childhood and youth.

Stage 6: Severe Decline

Patients with the sixth stage of Alzheimer’s disease need constant supervision and frequently require professional care. Symptoms include:

  • Confusion or unawareness of environment and surroundings
  • Major personality changes and potential behavior problems
  • The need for assistance with activities of daily living such as toileting and bathing
  • Inability to recognize faces except closest friends and relatives
  • Inability to remember most details of personal history
  • Loss of bowel and bladder control
  • Wandering

Stages 7: Very Severe Decline

Stage seven is the final stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Because Alzheimer’s disease is a terminal illness, patients in stage seven are nearing death. In stage seven of the disease, patients lose ability to respond to their environment or communicate. While they may still be able to utter words and phrases, they have no insight into their condition and need assistance with all activities of daily living. In the final stages of the illness, patients may lose their ability to swallow.

To know more about Alzheimer’s and various other Neurodegenerative Diseases, Join us at Alzheimers 2018 https://bit.ly/2qkhxWG

blog 23 April

Alzheimer’ Disease: Stages

Every person with Alzheimer’s disease experiences the disease differently, but patients tend to experience a similar trajectory from the beginning of the illness to its merciful end. The precise number of stages is somewhat arbitrary. Some experts use a simple three-phase model (early, moderate and end), while others have found a granular breakdown to be a more useful aid to understanding the progression of the illness.

Stage 1: No Impairment

During this stage, Alzheimer’s disease is not detectable and no memory problems or other symptoms of dementia are evident.

Stage 2: Very Mild Decline

The senior may notice minor memory problems or lose things around the house, although not to the point where the memory loss can easily be distinguished from normal age related memory loss. The person will still do well on memory tests and the disease is unlikely to be detected by physicians or loved ones.

Stage 3: Mild Decline

At this stage, the friends and family members of the senior may begin to notice memory and cognitive problems. Performance on memory and cognitive tests are affected and physicians will be able to detect impaired cognitive function.

Patients in stage 3 will have difficulty in many areas including:

  • finding the right word during conversations
  • remembering names of new acquaintances
  • planning and organizing
  • People with stage three Alzheimer’s may also frequently lose personal possessions, including valuables.

Stage 4: Moderate Decline

In stage four of Alzheimer’s disease clear cut symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are apparent. Patients with stage four Alzheimer’s disease:

  • Have difficulty with simple arithmetic
  • May forget details about their life histories
  • Have poor short term memory (may not recall what they ate for breakfast, for example)
  • Inability to manage finance and pay bills

To Know more Join us at the International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

wordpress.jpg

Statistics of Dementia

Someone in the world develops dementia every 3 seconds. There were an estimated 46.8 million people worldwide living with dementia in 2015 and this number is believed to be close to 50 million people in 2017. This number will almost double every 20 years, reaching 75 million in 2030 and 131.5 million in 2050. Much of the increase will be in developing countries. Already 58% of people with dementia live in low and middle income countries, but by 2050 this will rise to 68%. The fastest growth in the elderly population is taking place in China, India, and their south Asian and western Pacific neighbors.

Demographic ageing is a worldwide process that shows the successes of improved health care over the last century. Many are now living longer and healthier lives and so the world population has a greater proportion of older people. Dementia mainly affects older people, although there is a growing awareness of cases that start before the age of 65.

There are over 9.9 million new cases of dementia each year worldwide, implying one new case every 3.2 seconds.

To know more join us at International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases… https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

International Conference onAlzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases (3).jpg

Risk Factors of Dementia

Certain risk factors are known to be associated with dementia. However, age is the biggest predictor. Other risk factors include:

  • Smoking and alcohol use.
  • Atherosclerosis (cardiovascular disease causing the arteries to narrow).
  • High levels of “bad” cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein).
  • Above-average blood levels of homocysteine (a type of amino acid).
  • Diabetes.
  • Mild cognitive impairment can sometimes, but not always, lead to dementia.

This means you can help reduce your risk of dementia by:

  • Eating a healthy, balanced diet.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight.
  • Exercising regularly.
  • Keeping alcohol to a minimum.
  • Stopping smoking.
  • Keeping blood pressure at a healthy level.

To know more join us at International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases… https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

multa_sanatate,_domnilor_din_presa-280221507

Dementia treatments

Brain cell death cannot be reversed, so there is no known cure for degenerative dementia.

Management of disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease is instead focused on providing care and treating symptoms rather than their underlying cause.

If dementia symptoms are due to a reversible, non-degenerative cause, however, treatment may be possible to prevent or halt further brain tissue damage.

Examples include injury, medication effects, and vitamin deficiency.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease can be reduced by some medications. There are four drugs, called cholinesterase inhibitors, approved for use in the U.S.:

  • donepezil (brand name Aricept)
  • galantamine (Reminyl)
  • rivastigmine (Exelon)
  • tacrine (Cognex)

A different kind of drug, memantine (Namenda), an NMDA receptor antagonist, may also be used, alone or in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor.

Cholinesterase inhibitors can also help with the behavioral elements of Parkinson’s disease. To know more join us at Alzheimers2018

blog 18

Diagnosing Dementia: Second Part

The second part of the test probes someone close to the patient and includes six questions to find out whether the patient has:

  • become less able to remember recent events or conversations
  • begun struggling to find the right words or using inappropriate ones
  • found difficulty managing money or medications
  • needed more help with transport (without the reason being, for example, injury)
  • If the test does suggest memory loss, standard investigations are then recommended, including routine blood tests and a CT brain scan.

Clinical tests will identify, or rule out, treatable causes of memory loss and help to narrow down potential causes, such as Alzheimer’s disease.

The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) is a cognitive test which measures:

  • orientation to time and place
  • word recall
  • language abilities
  • attention and calculation
  • visuospatial skills

The MMSE is used to help diagnose dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease and also to rate its severity and whether drug treatment is needed.

Diagnosing Dementia

The first step in testing memory performance and cognitive health involves standard questions and tasks. Research has shown that dementia cannot be reliably diagnosed without using the standard tests below, completing them fully, and recording all the answers; however, diagnosis also takes account of other factors.

Cognitive Dementia Tests

Today’s cognitive dementia tests are widely used and have been verified as a reliable way of indicating dementia. They have changed little since being established in the early 1970s. The abbreviated mental test score has ten questions, which include:

What is your age?

What is the time, to the nearest hour?

What is the year?

What is your date of birth?

Each correct answer gets one point; scoring six points or fewer suggests cognitive impairment.

The General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) test includes an added element for recording the observations of relatives and caregivers.

Designed for doctors, this sort of test may be the first formal assessment of a person’s mental ability.

To know more Join us at the International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

blog 16 april

Cause of Dementia 

Dementias can be caused by brain cell death, and neurodegenerative disease – progressive brain cell death that happens over time – is associated with most dementias. However it is not known if the dementia causes the brain cell death, or the brain cell death causes the dementia. But, as well as progressive brain cell death, like that seen in Alzheimer’s disease, dementia can be caused by a head injury, a stroke, or a brain tumor, among other causes.

Vascular dementia (also called multi-infarct dementia) – resulting from brain cell death caused by conditions such as cerebrovascular disease, for example, stroke. This prevents normal blood flow, depriving brain cells of oxygen.

Injury – Post-traumatic dementia is directly related to brain cell death caused by injury.

Some types of traumatic brain injury – Particularly if repetitive, such as those received by sports players – have been linked to certain dementias appearing later in life. Evidence is weak, however, that a single brain injury raises the likelihood of having a degenerative dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Dementia can also be caused by:

Prion diseases – For instance, CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

HIV infection – How the virus damages brain cells is not certain, but it is known to occur.

Reversible factors – Some dementias can be treated by reversing the effects of underlying causes, including medication interactions, depression, vitamin deficiencies, and thyroid abnormalities.

To know more join us at https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

blog 13 April